The rifle was created in 1903 and replaced the Springfield Model 1892-99, M1895 Lee Navy, M1885 Remington-Lee, and the Springfield Model 1873.
In 1905, the U.S. Military adopted the rifle, and created the M1905 Bayonet, which was meant to fit on the 1903s. The M1906 .30-06 Caliber was made as it's standard ammunition.
In 1917, when America entered World War I, the M1903 was made the standard rifle for Infantry. After the war, the M1906 .30-06 Caliber was replaced by the M1 Caliber 30, a 174-grain boat-tail bullet. It was later replaced by the M2 Ball.
Eventually, the M1 Garands began to replace the 03s, but The U.S. Marines prized the Springfield for it's reliability and accuracy.
When America entered World War II, the Springfield was made into a sniper rifle. The Springfield was the most common sniper rifle used by American Infantry during the World War II. During the early battles, the Marines that fought in The Pacific mostly used '03s. The Marines eventually began to use the newer M1s, but still kept the Springfield as their primary sniper rifle. The U.S. Army Rangers also preferred the M1903A3 more than M1s, because it was more effective in commando missions.
The Springfeild was rarely used in the Korean War, but the Navy and Marines still used the rifle.
It eventually started to go out of favor, but limited amounts were used in the Vietnam War but only if they were desperate.